Ancient Genome Duplications Did Not Structure the Human Hox-Bearing Chromosomes
Hughes, Austin L.; da Silva, Jack; Friedman, Robert
The fact that there are four homeobox (Hox) clusters in most vertebrates but only one in invertebrates is often cited as evidence for the hypothesis that two rounds of genome duplication by polyploidization occurred early in vertebrate history. In addition, it has been observed in humans and other mammals that numerous gene families include paralogs on two or more of the four Hox-bearing chromosomes (the chromosomes bearing the Hox clusters; i.e., human chromosomes 2, 7, 12, and 17), and the existence of these paralogs has been taken as evidence that these genes were duplicated along with the Hox clusters by polyploidization. We tested this hypothesis by phylogenetic analysis of 42 gene families including members on two or more of the human Hox-bearing chromosomes. In 32 of these families there was evidence against the hypothesis that gene duplication occurred simultaneously with duplication of the Hox clusters. Phylogenies of 14 families supported the occurrence of one or more gene duplications before the origin of vertebrates, and of 15 gene duplication times estimated for gene families evolving in a clock-like manner, only six were dated to the same time period early in vertebrate history during which the Hox clusters duplicated. Furthermore, of gene families duplicated around the same time as the Hox clusters, the majority showed topologies inconsistent with their having duplicated simultaneously with the Hox clusters. The results thus indicate that ancient events of genome duplication, if they occurred at all, did not play an important role in structuring the mammalian Hox-bearing chromosomes. Originally published Genome Research, Vol. 11, No. 5, May 2001
Hughes, Austin L., & da Silva, Jack, & Friedman, Robert. (May 2001). Ancient Genome Duplications Did Not Structure the Human Hox-Bearing Chromosomes. Genome Research, 11(5), 771- 780. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3445
Hughes, Austin L., and da Silva, Jack, and Friedman, Robert. "Ancient Genome Duplications Did Not Structure the Human Hox-Bearing Chromosomes". Genome Research. 11:5. (771-780), May 2001. November 15, 2018. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3445.
Hughes, Austin L. and da Silva, Jack and Friedman, Robert, "Ancient Genome Duplications Did Not Structure the Human Hox-Bearing Chromosomes," Genome Research 11, no. 5 (May 2001), http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3445 (accessed November 15, 2018).
Hughes, Austin L., da Silva, Jack, Friedman, Robert. Ancient Genome Duplications Did Not Structure the Human Hox-Bearing Chromosomes. Genome Research. May 2001; 11(5): 771-780. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3445. Accessed November 15, 2018.
East Carolina University