Examining the implementation of PETTLEP-based imagery in youth soccer-dribbling performance
Basnight, Joshua Steven G., IV
Purposes: To examine the effect of PETTLEP imagery on performance (dribbling time, error performance, performance time) when it is introduced at different times during the process of learning a soccer skill. Hypotheses: Hypothesis one stated that all groups that take part in the PETTLEP imagery intervention will increase the performance of the soccer players on the dribbling task by decreasing their completion time as well as the number of errors committed by each athlete. Hypothesis two stated that the earliest implemented PETTLEP imagery intervention will show the largest performance increases from the pre-test to the post-test. Methods: Participants were recruited from youth soccer teams. Initially, participants self-reported their sex and age before completing the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised to assess imagery ability (Hall & Martin, 1997). Following, teams completed an adapted version of a soccer-dribbling task (O & Munroe-Chandler, 2008) as a performance assessment three times over the course of the study and physically practiced the task once each week. Imagery Group 1 began practicing a PETTLEP mental imagery program during week one. Imagery Group 2 was scheduled to begin practicing the same program during week three of the study but due to participant attrition, this group was no longer included as a part of the study. The members of the single imagery group were asked to continue practicing PETTLEP mental imagery outside of practice four times per week across the duration of the study. Participants were instructed to document all mental imagery practice sessions in an Imagery Diary to be turned in at the completion of the study. A separate control group practiced four stretches derived from the FIFA 11+ stretching routine (F-Marc, 2003) for the 6-week entirety of the study. Following the post-test, participants completed the MIQ-R (Hall & Martin, 1997) a second time as well as a Post-experimental Manipulation Check to gain more information concerning the participant's imagery use during the study. Results: Participants (N = 8, M age= 11.88 ± 0.35 years) in this study were youth soccer players who participated as a part of Wilmington Hammerheads Youth FC. The initial sample was composed of 68 participants but due to an unexpectedly wet season resulting in the reduction in team practices, the two teams participating as members of imagery group 2 dropped out of the study. As a result of imagery group 2 dropping out of the study, a 2 (Group) x 3 (Session) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to test the effects of imagery use on dribbling speed. This analysis revealed a non-significant effect for Speed, F(2, 5) = 1.64, p = .28, n2=.40 and Group, F(2, 5) = 5.31, p = .06, n2=.68 However, there was a significant Group x Session interaction (F(2, 12) = 7.19, p < .01). An independent samples t-test indicated that the average member of the stretching (control) group achieved a significantly faster dribbling speed at the second session session (t(6) = 1.68, p < .01, d=1.38) than the average member of imagery group 1. There were no significant differences between the recorded dribbling times of both groups at testing session one (t(6) = -1.90, p = .11, d = 1.47) or three (t(6) = -0.71, p = 0.51, d = 0.56). Although, the effect size for the analysis of the two groups at testing session one (d = 1.47) was found to exceed Cohen's (1988) suggestion for a large effect (d = .80) meaning that these groups had a large difference between dribbling times. At testing session three, Cohen (1988) would classify the differences observed ( d = 0.56) between the recorded dribbling times of imagery group one and the stretching group as a medium effect (d = .50). These results indicate that participants in imagery group one did not perform the soccer-dribbling task significantly faster than the stretching group but there was a large difference in the groups dribbling times across the three testing sessions. A separate, 2 (Group) x 3 (Session) repeated measures ANOVA analysis revealed no significant effects for Errors, F(2, 5) = 5.64, p = .05, n2 = .69 or Group, F(2, 5) = 12.85, p = .01, n2 = .84. Although, there was a significant Group x Session interaction between imagery group 1 and the stretching (control) group (F(2, 12) = 9.30, p < .01). The average member of imagery group 1 reduced the errors that they committed at each testing session. While, the members of the stretching group initially reduced the errors that they committed before returning to their baseline level of 1.00 errors committed per attempt of the soccer-dribbling task. A 2 (Group) x 3 (Session) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to test the effects of imagery use on the performance time of the average participant in each group. This analysis revealed a non-significant effect for Performance time, F(2, 5) = 0.48, p = .65, n2=.16 and Group, F(2, 5) = 3.54, p = .11, n2=.59. In this instance, there was a significant Group x Session interaction (F(6) = 7.19, p < .01) between the imagery and stretching groups. There were no significant differences in the calculated performance times that it took for the two groups of youth soccer players to complete the soccer-dribbling task at any session but the differences in these times were greatest at the second testing session (t(5) = 2.34, p = .07, d = 2.09). Cohen (1988) would classify the effect size between these groups (d = 2.09) as a large effect (d > .80). This large difference between the performance of the two groups at testing session two, following the introduction of the PETTLEP imagery may suggest that the imagery intervention have had a different effect on the performance of the participants in imagery group than the stretching (control) group (who only physically practiced the task) but this effect did not significant. This study was unable to assess the second hypothesis concerning any differences that may exist between the performances of two groups beginning a PETTLEP imagery intervention after different levels of practice of the soccer-dribbling task in question as both teams assigned to this condition dropped out of the study before they undergoing the PETTLEP imagery intervention. Conclusion: Due to the attrition of 88% of the initial sample, this study was unable to assess the differing affects of PETTLEP mental imagery on soccer-dribbling performance when it is introduced at multiple time periods throughout the process of learning a technical soccer task. It is hoped that future researchers will continue the study of this topic in an attempt to fill the large hole in the field concerning the best time to implement a mental imagery program as a form of physical performance enhancement (Smith et al., 2007). This information will allow researchers to provide coaches, parents and athletes with a guideline for the most effective time when practicing a new skill to begin practicing mental imagery in an effort to improve performance to the greatest degree.
Basnight, Joshua Steven G., IV. (May 2016). Examining the implementation of PETTLEP-based imagery in youth soccer-dribbling performance (Master's Thesis, East Carolina University). Retrieved from the Scholarship. (http://hdl.handle.net/10342/5315.)
Basnight, Joshua Steven G., IV. Examining the implementation of PETTLEP-based imagery in youth soccer-dribbling performance. Master's Thesis. East Carolina University, May 2016. The Scholarship. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/5315. June 20, 2018.
Basnight, Joshua Steven G., IV, “Examining the implementation of PETTLEP-based imagery in youth soccer-dribbling performance” (Master's Thesis., East Carolina University, May 2016).
Basnight, Joshua Steven G., IV. Examining the implementation of PETTLEP-based imagery in youth soccer-dribbling performance [Master's Thesis]. Greenville, NC: East Carolina University; May 2016.
East Carolina University