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Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascade inhibitors: How mutations can result in therapy resistance and how to overcome resistance
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Targeting these pathways is often complex and can ...
Mutations and deregulation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mtor cascades which alter therapy response
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Certain components of these pathways, RAS, NF1, BRAF, ...
Roles of GSK-3 and microRNAs on epithelial mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells
Various signaling pathways exert critical roles in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Wnt/beta-catenin, PI3K/PTEN/ Akt/mTORC, Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, hedgehog (Hh), Notch and TP53 ...
Targeting signaling and apoptotic pathways involved in chemotherapeutic drug-resistance of hematopoietic cells
A critical problem in leukemia as well as other cancer therapies is the development of chemotherapeutic drug-resistance. We have developed models of hematopoietic drug resistance that are based on expression of dominant-negative ...
Drug-resistance in doxorubicin-resistant FL5.12 hematopoietic cells: elevated MDR1, drug efflux and side-population positive and decreased BCL2-family member expression
Chemotherapeutic drug treatment can result in the emergence of drug-resistant cells. By culturing an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line, FL5.12 cells in the presence of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, we ...
Effects of ectopic expression of NGAL on doxorubicin sensitivity
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, a.k.a Lnc2) is a member of the lipocalin family which has diverse roles including stabilizing matrix metalloproteinase-9 from auto-degradation and as siderocalins which are ...