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Mutations and deregulation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mtor cascades which alter therapy response
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Certain components of these pathways, RAS, NF1, BRAF, ...
Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascade inhibitors: How mutations can result in therapy resistance and how to overcome resistance
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Targeting these pathways is often complex and can ...
Roles of GSK-3 and microRNAs on epithelial mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells
Various signaling pathways exert critical roles in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Wnt/beta-catenin, PI3K/PTEN/ Akt/mTORC, Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, hedgehog (Hh), Notch and TP53 ...
Targeting signaling and apoptotic pathways involved in chemotherapeutic drug-resistance of hematopoietic cells
A critical problem in leukemia as well as other cancer therapies is the development of chemotherapeutic drug-resistance. We have developed models of hematopoietic drug resistance that are based on expression of dominant-negative ...
Drug-resistance in doxorubicin-resistant FL5.12 hematopoietic cells: elevated MDR1, drug efflux and side-population positive and decreased BCL2-family member expression
Chemotherapeutic drug treatment can result in the emergence of drug-resistant cells. By culturing an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line, FL5.12 cells in the presence of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, we ...