Physical Activity, Academic Performance, and Physical Self-Description in Adolescent Females
Guerieri, Ashley M.
Despite the many health benefits of being physically active, nearly a quarter of U.S. adults and adolescents report no participation in leisure-time physical activity. It is recommended that children and adolescents participate in physical activity for at least 60 minutes daily at moderate or vigorous intensity. In addition to potentially enhancing academic performance, participation in physical activity may also influence perceptions of physical appearance and global self-esteem, which tend to decrease with age in adolescent females. The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the percentage of adolescent females from a rural community that meets physical activity recommendations; (b) examine the relationship of body composition, physical activity, and sedentary behavior on academic performance; and (c) examine the relationship between physical activity and physical self-concept among adolescent females. Thirty adolescent females (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.3 years) wore an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for seven consecutive days, set to measure in 15-second epochs. Age specific cutpoints were used to determine minutes of sedentary behavior and light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess how they perceive themselves physically. Height, weight, and percent body fat were measured. Grade point averages (GPA) were obtained from school records. Regression analysis was performed to predict GPA from measures of body composition, sedentary behavior, and MVPA. Measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior were correlated with PSDQ subscale scores with Pearson correlations. Thirty percent of participants (n = 9) were obese (BMI [greater than or equal to] 95th percentile) and another 36% (n = 11) were overweight (BMI between the 85th and 94th percentiles). None of the participants accumulated [greater than or equal to] 60 minutes of MVPA per day. Daily MVPA averaged 9.7 (± 7.1) minutes. Percent fat (r = -.51), minutes of MVPA (r = .34), and time spent in sedentary behavior (r = .32) were significantly correlated (p < .05) with GPA. Together measures of body composition, physical activity, and sedentary behavior explained 36% of the variance (multiple R = .60) in GPA. The standard error of estimate for predicting GPA was 0.64. Minutes per day spent in light physical activity was negatively correlated (p < .01) with the Self-Esteem (r = -.51), Body Fat (r = -.52), and Global Physical Self-Concept (r = -.48) subscales of the PSDQ. Only the Physical Activity subscale of the PSDQ was significantly correlated with MVPA (r = .36). In conclusion, the current sample of adolescent females had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and was physically inactive. Academic performance was significantly associated with measures of body composition, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Time spent in light physical activity was associated with lower self-perceptions of body fat, global physical self-concept, and self-esteem. Measures of higher intensity physical activity were generally not associated with physical self-perception measures, possibly due to the low amount of time spent in MVPA. Interventions to increase physical activity and improve body composition in adolescent girls should be considered not only for their health effects, but also for their potential to impact academic performance and psychological profiles.
Guerieri, Ashley M.. (January 2009). Physical Activity, Academic Performance, and Physical Self-Description in Adolescent Females (Master's Thesis, East Carolina University). Retrieved from the Scholarship. (http://hdl.handle.net/10342/2234.)
Guerieri, Ashley M.. Physical Activity, Academic Performance, and Physical Self-Description in Adolescent Females. Master's Thesis. East Carolina University, January 2009. The Scholarship. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/2234. April 26, 2019.
Guerieri, Ashley M., “Physical Activity, Academic Performance, and Physical Self-Description in Adolescent Females” (Master's Thesis., East Carolina University, January 2009).
Guerieri, Ashley M.. Physical Activity, Academic Performance, and Physical Self-Description in Adolescent Females [Master's Thesis]. Greenville, NC: East Carolina University; January 2009.
East Carolina University