Cultural Intelligence Among American Hospitality Students: An Examination of Antecedent and Outcome Variables
Gillette, Annaliese S.
The diversification of workforces and globalization of businesses have created a demand for qualified global managers who can effectively navigate cross-cultural encounters with employees and customers from different backgrounds. Cultural intelligence (CQ) refers to an individual’s ability to detect, assimilate, reason, and act using cultural cues appropriately (Earley & Ang, 2003). Despite previous research on CQ, few studies have been conducted in both a university and hospitality setting. Particularly, there is relatively little research on antecedents and outcomes of CQ among American hospitality students. This study examines and explores how CQ is related to emotional intelligence (EI) and intercultural communication apprehension (ICA). EI is an individual’s ability to recognize and understand emotions in both oneself and others, and effectively use this emotional information (Crowne, 2012). ICA is defined as the fear, anxiety, or lack of motivation associated with either real or anticipated interaction with people from different groups (Neuliep & McCroskery, 1997). According to previous research, individuals with high CQ possess strong emotional display, management, and regulation (Moon, 2010). Also, individuals who recognize and understand others’ cultural preferences or norms tend to uphold cultural respect, reduce personal anxiety, and effectively communicate in intercultural conversations (Alon & Higgins, 2005). Based on previous research, this study hypothesized (1) EI positively affects student CQ while (2) CQ negatively affects ICA. Data were collected through quantitative surveys completed by 370 students majoring in hospitality management throughout the United States. Hierarchical regression analysis showed significant relationships between these concepts, supporting the proposed hypotheses. Students who have increased levels of EI, allowing them to manage, adapt, and regulate their emotions in varying situations, typically also have high levels of CQ, allowing them to effectively understand and communicate with individuals from different cultures. Also, students with high levels of CQ are far less likely to have ICA, diagnosed by fear and anxiety in multicultural situations. This study is a part of a continuously growing body of research focused on the globalization of the hospitality industry and the increased importance of cultural awareness, sensitivity, and communication capabilities.
Gillette, Annaliese S.. (May 2017). Cultural Intelligence Among American Hospitality Students: An Examination of Antecedent and Outcome Variables (Honors Thesis, East Carolina University). Retrieved from the Scholarship. (http://hdl.handle.net/10342/6301.)
Gillette, Annaliese S.. Cultural Intelligence Among American Hospitality Students: An Examination of Antecedent and Outcome Variables. Honors Thesis. East Carolina University, May 2017. The Scholarship. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/6301. April 23, 2019.
Gillette, Annaliese S., “Cultural Intelligence Among American Hospitality Students: An Examination of Antecedent and Outcome Variables” (Honors Thesis., East Carolina University, May 2017).
Gillette, Annaliese S.. Cultural Intelligence Among American Hospitality Students: An Examination of Antecedent and Outcome Variables [Honors Thesis]. Greenville, NC: East Carolina University; May 2017.
East Carolina University