Entheseal Changes as a Reflection of Activity Patterns at 1st Century BC/AD Petra, Jordan
Over the past thirty years, biological anthropologists have attempted to reconstruct human behavioral patterns by analyzing entheseal attachments, the areas where tendons and ligaments attach to the bone. Many researchers hypothesize that biomechanical stress on ligaments and tendons due to repetitive activities will be reflected in bony changes that occur within the attachment site. Therefore, the distribution and characterization of these entheseal changes have been used to illuminate ancient human activity patterns. This research focuses on the pattern of entheseal changes observed in individuals from urban first century BC/AD Petra in order to generate a profile of activity patterns for the non-elite Nabataeans buried along the North Ridge. Assessment of the entheseal attachments was accomplished using the newly formed Coimbra method. This method is considered as an improvement over previous scoring techniques as it is based on the results of clinical research and incorporates refined terminology and descriptions of entheseal changes. While the multifactorial etiology of entheses hinders identifying specific occupation types, generalized patterns of activity can still be inferred from the collection of these data. The sample of Petra's non-elite experienced only slight entheseal changes compared to other communities assessed here, with little evidence of sexual division of labor. Additionally, the sample did not display bilateral asymmetry as anticipated, however there were higher scores for the lower limb than the upper limb. During the first century BC and first century AD, Petra was a major urban center and capital of the Nabataean Kingdom. Its economy was based largely on trade and some light manufacturing using local resources. The findings presented here confirm that people who were buried along the North Ridge had been working in the city, possibly involved with civic, administrative, and/or religious duties that would have been present during the height of the city.
Wagner, Tara. (July 2018). Entheseal Changes as a Reflection of Activity Patterns at 1st Century BC/AD Petra, Jordan (Master's Thesis, East Carolina University). Retrieved from the Scholarship. (http://hdl.handle.net/10342/6925.)
Wagner, Tara. Entheseal Changes as a Reflection of Activity Patterns at 1st Century BC/AD Petra, Jordan. Master's Thesis. East Carolina University, July 2018. The Scholarship. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/6925. September 20, 2019.
Wagner, Tara, “Entheseal Changes as a Reflection of Activity Patterns at 1st Century BC/AD Petra, Jordan” (Master's Thesis., East Carolina University, July 2018).
Wagner, Tara. Entheseal Changes as a Reflection of Activity Patterns at 1st Century BC/AD Petra, Jordan [Master's Thesis]. Greenville, NC: East Carolina University; July 2018.
East Carolina University