Epigenetic mechanisms of drug resistance: drug-induced DNA hypermethylation and drug resistance.
Nyce, Jonathan W.; Leonard, Sherry Ann; Canupp, Dawn; Schulz, Stefan; Wong, So
In a model system employing Chinese hamster V-79 cells, the DNA synthesis inhibitor 3'-azido-3'- deoxythymidine (BW A509U, AZT) was shown to induce genome-wide DNA hypermethylation, low-frequency silencing of thymidine kinase (TK; EC 220.127.116.11) gene expression, and resistance to AZT. Twenty-four hours of exposure of V-79 cells to 150 ,uM AZT led to >2-fold enhancement of genomic 5-methylcytosine levels and produced TK- epimutants at a rate -43-fold above background. Such AZT-induced TK- epimutants were shown to be severely reduced in their capacity to activate AZT to its proximate antiviral form, AZT 5'- monophosphate, as compared with the TK+ parental cell line from which they were derived. TK- clones isolated under these conditions were shown to be 9- to 24-fold more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of AZT than the parental TK+ cell line and showed collateral resistance to 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine. Three of four TK- epimutants could be reactivated at very high frequency (8-73%) to the TK+ AZT-sensitive phenotype by 24 hr of exposure to the demethylating agent 5-azadeoxycytidine (5-azadC), implying that drug-induced DNA hypermethylation, rather than classical mutation, was involved in the original gene-silencing event in these three clones. These 5-azadC-induced TK+ revertants concomitantly regained the ability to metabolize AZT to its 5'-monophosphate. RNA slot blot analyses indicated that the four AZT-induced TK- clones expressed 8.9%, 15.6%, 17.8%, and 11.1% of the parental level ofTK mRNA. The three clones that were reactivatable by 5-azadC showed reexpression of TK mRNA to levels 84.4%, 51.1%, and 80.0% that of the TK+ parental cell line. These experiments show that one potential mechanism of drug resistance involves drug-induced DNA hypermethylation and resulting transcriptional inactivation of cellular genes whose products are required for drug activation. Originally published Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Vol. 90, No. 7, Apr 1993
Nyce, Jonathan W., & Leonard, Sherry Ann, & Canupp, Dawn, & Schulz, Stefan, & Wong, So. (April 1993). Epigenetic mechanisms of drug resistance: drug-induced DNA hypermethylation and drug resistance.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (90:7), p.2960-2964. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3366
Nyce, Jonathan W., and Leonard, Sherry Ann, and Canupp, Dawn, and Schulz, Stefan, and Wong, So. "Epigenetic mechanisms of drug resistance: drug-induced DNA hypermethylation and drug resistance.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 90:7. (2960-2964.), April 1993. June 16, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3366.
Nyce, Jonathan W. and Leonard, Sherry Ann and Canupp, Dawn and Schulz, Stefan and Wong, So, "Epigenetic mechanisms of drug resistance: drug-induced DNA hypermethylation and drug resistance.," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90, no. 7 (April 1993), http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3366 (accessed June 16, 2021).
Nyce, Jonathan W., Leonard, Sherry Ann, Canupp, Dawn, Schulz, Stefan, Wong, So. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug resistance: drug-induced DNA hypermethylation and drug resistance.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. April 1993; 90(7) 2960-2964. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3366. Accessed June 16, 2021.
East Carolina University