Robotics in Cardiac Surgery: Past, Present, and Future
Bolotin, Gil; Nir, Rony-Reuven
Robotic cardiac operations evolved from minimally invasive operations and offer similar theoretical benefits, including less pain, shorter length of stay, improved cosmesis, and quicker return to preoperative level of functional activity. The additional benefits offered by robotic surgical systems include improved dexterity and degrees of freedom, tremor-free movements, ambidexterity, and the avoidance of the fulcrum effect that is intrinsic when using long-shaft endoscopic instruments. Also, optics and operative visualization are vastly improved compared with direct vision and traditional videoscopes. Robotic systems have been utilized successfully to perform complex mitral valve repairs, coronary revascularization, atrial fibrillation ablation, intracardiac tumor resections, atrial septal defect closures, and left ventricular lead implantation. The history and evolution of these procedures, as well as the present status and future directions of robotic cardiac surgery, are presented in this review.
Bolotin, Gil, & Nir, Rony-Reuven. (July 2013). Robotics in Cardiac Surgery: Past, Present, and Future. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal, (4:3), p.1-8. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10342/5428
Bolotin, Gil, and Nir, Rony-Reuven. "Robotics in Cardiac Surgery: Past, Present, and Future". Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal. 4:3. (1-8.), July 2013. September 19, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/5428.
Bolotin, Gil and Nir, Rony-Reuven, "Robotics in Cardiac Surgery: Past, Present, and Future," Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal 4, no. 3 (July 2013), http://hdl.handle.net/10342/5428 (accessed September 19, 2020).
Bolotin, Gil, Nir, Rony-Reuven. Robotics in Cardiac Surgery: Past, Present, and Future. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal. July 2013; 4(3) 1-8. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/5428. Accessed September 19, 2020.