|Description||Background: Infant mortality among racial and ethnic minorities is disproportionately higher
than that of White infants; a trend that has persisted and increased over time (Center for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2015). Research suggests this disparity may be due to timing of entry
into prenatal care (PNC) later, as well as numerous other individual and systems factors (Mazul,
Salm-Ward, & Ngui, 2017). The purpose of this study was to: 1) collect and analyze data to
identify differences in entry into PNC among racial and ethnic groups and 2) determine what
characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, marital status, and insurance status) influence entry into PNC.
Methodology: A program evaluation was conducted during a 7-week community health clinical
practicum. Maternity records from January through December 2016 from a health department in
a rural area of a southern state were reviewed. Microsoft Excel was used to organize the
following variables: age, race and ethnicity, marital status, and insurance status. Entry into PNC
was defined as first trimester (<14 weeks), second trimester (14-27 weeks), and third trimester
(>27 weeks). Data was collected over a four-week period.
Findings: The sample of 628 was composed of Black/Haitian 46.82%, Hispanic/Latino 29.0%,
and White 24.2% women. The majority of women (71.3%) entered PNC in the first trimester.
Women ages 30-39, married women, and women of Hispanic/Latino heritage were more likely
to enter PNC late. Medicaid recipients were more likely to enter PNC in the first trimester.
Conclusion: A targeted outreach initiative to women ages of 30-39, women who are married,
and Hispanic/Latino women in local churches, schools, daycares, and places of employment may
be beneficial. Social marketing should include information about the new midwife initiative.||