intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer
Harris, Eleanor E. R.; Small, William Jr.
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for early stage breast cancer is a technique for partial breast irradiation. There are several technologies in clinical use to perform breast IORT. Regardless of technique, IORT generally refers to the delivery of a single dose of radiation to the periphery of the tumor bed in the immediate intraoperative time frame, although some protocols have performed IORT as a second procedure. There are two large prospective randomized trials establishing the safety and efficacy of breast IORT in early stage breast cancer patients with sufficient follow-up time on thousands of women. The advantages of IORT for partial breast irradiation include: direct visualization of the target tissue ensuring treatment of the high-risk tissue and eliminating the risk of marginal miss; the use of a single dose coordinated with the necessary surgical excision thereby reduc- ing omission of radiation and the selection of mastectomy for women without access to a radiotherapy facility or unable to undergo several weeks of daily radiation; favorable toxicity profiles; patient convenience and cost savings; radiobiological and tumor micro- environment conditions which lead to enhanced tumor control. The main disadvantage of IORT is the lack of final pathologic information on the tumor size, histology, margins, and nodal status. When unexpected findings on final pathology such as positive margins or positive sentinel nodes predict a higher risk of local or regional recurrence, additional whole breast radiation may be indicated, thereby reducing some of the convenience and low-toxicity advantages of sole IORT. However, IORT as a tumor bed boost has also been studied and appears to be safe with acceptable toxicity. IORT has potential efficacy advantages related to overall survival related to reduced cardiopulmonary radia- tion doses. It may also be very useful in specific situations, such as prior to oncoplastic reconstruction to improve accuracy of adjuvant radiation delivery, or when used as a boost in higher risk patients to improve tumor control. Ongoing international clinical trials are studying these uses and follow-up data are accumulating on completed studies.
Harris, Eleanor E. R., & Small, William Jr.. (December 2017). intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer. Frontiers in Oncology, (. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10342/8219
Harris, Eleanor E. R., and Small, William Jr.. "intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer". Frontiers in Oncology. . (.), December 2017. September 18, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/8219.
Harris, Eleanor E. R. and Small, William Jr., "intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer," Frontiers in Oncology 7, no. (December 2017), http://hdl.handle.net/10342/8219 (accessed September 18, 2020).
Harris, Eleanor E. R., Small, William Jr.. intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer. Frontiers in Oncology. December 2017; 7() . http://hdl.handle.net/10342/8219. Accessed September 18, 2020.