Hyaluronan regulates synapse formation and function in developing neural networks.
Wilson, E.; Knudson, W.; Newell-Litwa, K.
Neurodevelopmental disorders present with synaptic alterations that disrupt the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signaling. For example, hyperexcitability of cortical neurons is associated with both epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders. However, the mechanisms that initially establish the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signaling in brain development are not well understood. Here, we sought to determine how the extracellular matrix directs synapse formation and regulates synaptic function in a model of human cortical brain development. The extracellular matrix, making up twenty percent of brain volume, is largely comprised of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan acts as both a scaffold of the extracellular matrix and a space-filling molecule. Hyaluronan is present from the onset of brain development, beginning with neural crest cell migration. Through acute perturbation of hyaluronan levels during synaptogenesis, we sought to determine how hyaluronan impacts the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory synapse formation and the resulting neural activity. We used 3-D cortical spheroids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells to replicate this neurodevelopmental window. Our results demonstrate that hyaluronan preferentially surrounds nascent excitatory synapses. Removal of hyaluronan increases the expression of excitatory synapse markers and results in a corresponding increase in the formation of excitatory synapses, while also decreasing inhibitory synapse formation. This increased excitatory synapse formation elevates network activity, as demonstrated by microelectrode array analysis. In contrast, the addition of purified hyaluronan suppresses excitatory synapse formation. These results establish that the hyaluronan extracellular matrix surrounds developing excitatory synapses, where it critically regulates synapse formation and the resulting balance between excitatory to inhibitory signaling.
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Wilson, E., & Knudson, W., & Newell-Litwa, K.. (October 2020). Hyaluronan regulates synapse formation and function in developing neural networks.. , (), - Litwa, K. (2020). Hyaluronan regulates synapse formation and function in developing neural networks. Scientific reports, 10(1), 16459. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73177-y. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10342/9432
Wilson, E., and Knudson, W., and Newell-Litwa, K.. "Hyaluronan regulates synapse formation and function in developing neural networks.". . . (), October 2020. October 01, 2023. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/9432.
Wilson, E. and Knudson, W. and Newell-Litwa, K., "Hyaluronan regulates synapse formation and function in developing neural networks.," , no. (October 2020), http://hdl.handle.net/10342/9432 (accessed October 01, 2023).
Wilson, E., Knudson, W., Newell-Litwa, K.. Hyaluronan regulates synapse formation and function in developing neural networks.. . October 2020; (): . http://hdl.handle.net/10342/9432. Accessed October 01, 2023.