Emerging role of immune checkpoint blockade in pancreatic cancer
Macherla, S.; Laks, S.; Naqash, Abdul R.; Bulumulle, A.; Zervos, E.; Muzaffar, Mahvish
Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with programmed cell death protein-1(PD-1)/programmed death ligand -1(PD-L1) antibodies has revolutionized the management of several cancers, especially non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, urothelial, and renal cancer. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive cancers associated with high morbidity and mortality. Based on available data, it's obvious that ICB has limited success in PDACs, which can be explained by the low immunogenicity and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment of these tumors. In this review article, we focus on PD-L1 expression and microsatellite instability (MSI) in PDAC, and their roles as prognostic and predictive markers. We also discuss data supporting combination therapies to augment cancer immunity cycle. Combining anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents with other modalities such as vaccines, chemotherapy, and radiation could potentially overcome resistance patterns and increase immune responsiveness in PDAC.
Macherla, S., & Laks, S., & Naqash, Abdul R., & Bulumulle, A., & Zervos, E., & Muzaffar, Mahvish. (November 2018). Emerging role of immune checkpoint blockade in pancreatic cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, (19:11), p.. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10342/7355
Macherla, S., and Laks, S., and Naqash, Abdul R., and Bulumulle, A., and Zervos, E., and Muzaffar, Mahvish. "Emerging role of immune checkpoint blockade in pancreatic cancer". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 19:11. (.), November 2018. October 03, 2022. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/7355.
Macherla, S. and Laks, S. and Naqash, Abdul R. and Bulumulle, A. and Zervos, E. and Muzaffar, Mahvish, "Emerging role of immune checkpoint blockade in pancreatic cancer," International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 11 (November 2018), http://hdl.handle.net/10342/7355 (accessed October 03, 2022).
Macherla, S., Laks, S., Naqash, Abdul R., Bulumulle, A., Zervos, E., Muzaffar, Mahvish. Emerging role of immune checkpoint blockade in pancreatic cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. November 2018; 19(11) . http://hdl.handle.net/10342/7355. Accessed October 03, 2022.