THE IMPACT OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL CONTROLS ON RECIDIVISM IN NORWAY AND THE UNITED STATES: THE CASE OF NORTH DAKOTA PRISON EXPERIMENT

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Hilliard, Taylor E

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East Carolina University

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The goal of this research is to investigate to what degree the differences in recidivism rates can be accounted by differences in the dynamics of interaction between informal and formal aspects of prison organizations and their cultures in the United States and Norway. Effectiveness of prison policies as impacted by interactions of informal and formal groups within and outside the correctional systems is analyzed by using U.S. and Scandinavian Census data, official reports, and secondary literature review. Data on the North Dakota Prison Experiment was collected on a visit to two of North Dakota's correctional facilities. A counselor from the Organization for Families and Friends of Prisoners based out of Oslo, Norway was also interviewed. Scandinavian policy implications for strategies to reduce recidivism in the United States are discussed.

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