INFLUENCE OF MATERNAL EXERCISE TYPE ON MATERNAL AND INFANT METABOLIC HEALTH

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Date

2020-06-22

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Remchak, Mary-Margaret E

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East Carolina University

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Purpose: Current research supports that chronic exercise in the non-pregnant population promotes metabolic adaptations at rest (reduction in glucose, lactate, lipids), but little is known of the maternal metabolic adaptations due to exercise, or the most beneficial type of exercise, at recommended levels throughout pregnancy. Methods: To address the gap in knowledge, 73 women were randomized to moderate intensity (40-59% VO2peak) aerobic exercise (n=21), resistance exercise (n=23), combination (aerobic + resistance) exercise (n=21), or light intensity (VO2peak) stretching/ breathing control group (n=8). All women were trained 50 minutes, 3 times per week, from 16 weeks gestation to delivery. Final analysis included 39 participants with one-month old neonates; aerobic (n=14), resistance (n=10), combination (n=11), control (n=4). Maternal fasted blood samples were collected at 16 and 36 weeks via fingerstick, and infant blood samples were collected at one-month post-partum via venipuncture, or heel-stick if needed. Cholestech and Lactate Analyzers were used to determine maternal and infant glucose, lactate, and lipid (TC, TG, LDL, HDL, TC:HDL ratio, N-HDL) profiles. Significance was denoted as p [less-than] 0.05 when assessing exercise groups relative to control, and when assessing differences between exercise groups (AT. vs. RT. vs. CT.). Results: All exercise groups when compared to control resulted in significantly lower maternal TG (aerobic, p = 0.004; resistance, p = 0.0006; combination, p = 0.007) at 36 weeks gestation. Resistance and Combination exercise resulted in significantly lower maternal TC (resistance, p = 0.045; combination, p = 0.05) at 36 weeks gestation relative to control. No between exercise group significance observed in maternal metabolic profile (AT vs. RT vs. CT). Maternal combination exercise resulted in significantly lower infant LDL (p=0.046), with trends towards significantly lower TC (resistance, p = 0.09), and trend towards significantly elevated N-HDL (resistance, p = 0.06) compared to controls. Between exercise groups measures resulted in no significant difference when assessing infant metabolic profile at one-month of age. Conclusion: All types of exercise during pregnancy positively supports maternal metabolic normalization for TG, and specifically resistance training normalizes maternal lipid levels. Additionally, maternal combination exercise during pregnancy positively impacts infant lipid levels. Trend towards significant findings in infant metabolic health may be due to small sample size, and small control group. These findings suggest all types of exercise during pregnancy, specifically combination and resistance exercise, may help to normalize maternal lipids during pregnancy and infant baseline lipid profile.

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